Phosphorus: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

Visual presentation communicates information clearly and effectively through graphical means. WikiSummarizer is a Web-based application that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents them as Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base.

WikiSummarizer is an interactive learning and teaching tool providing effective graphical visualization that reduces complex information and provides clear and attractive presentation of the essential points. The interactive summaries are easily shared and published in blogs, websites and documents as digital Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds.

It is easy to collaborate and mine information using the WikiSummarizer summaries in blogs, websites, word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications, databases and content management systems.

This Visual Summary presents the keywords and the summaries of the Wikipedia article about "Phosphorus". The Visual Summary map and the Keyword Cloud were automatically created by WikiSummarizer.

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Keyword Cloud with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base

 

 

Essential Summary

 

Wikipedia article:  Phosphorus

 

Phosphorus

 

Phosphorus (100)

 

·         A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidized state, as inorganic phosphate rocks.

 

·         Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth.

 

·         The first form of elemental phosphorus to be produced (white phosphorus, in 1669) emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen – hence its name given from Greek mythology, Φωσφόρος meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus.

 

·         Although the term "phosphorescence", meaning glow after illumination, derives from this property of phosphorus, the glow of phosphorus originates from oxidation of the white (but not red) phosphorus and should be called chemiluminescence.

 

·         The vast majority of phosphorus compounds are consumed as fertilizers.

 

·         Today, the most important commercial use of phosphorus-based chemicals is the production of fertilizers, to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil.

 

·         The two most common allotropes are white phosphorus and red phosphorus.

 

·         White phosphorus and related molecular forms The most important form of elemental phosphorus from the perspective of applications and chemical literature is white phosphorus.

 

·         In this sense, red phosphorus is not an allotrope, but rather an intermediate phase between the white and violet phosphorus, and most of its properties have a range of values.

 

·         Phosphorus is not found free in nature, but it is widely distributed in many minerals, mainly phosphates.

 

·         The white phosphorus is then oxidised to phosphoric acid and subsequently neutralised with base to give phosphate salts.

 

·         Oxides The most prevalent compounds of phosphorus are derivatives of phosphate (PO4), a tetrahedral anion.

 

·         In 1769 Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) is found in bones, and they obtained phosphorus from bone ash.

 

 

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· This summary was produced by WikiSummarizer for Wikipedia

 

· WikiSummarizer is an automated text summarization and text mining application created by Context Discovery Inc

 

· If you are interested in using WikiSummarizer technology please contact us at wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

——————————————————

About Context Discovery WikiSummarizer

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based summarization portal that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents the results as a structured outline, a Visual Summary and a Keyword Cloud.

The Visual Summary can be navigated in any browser on Windows, Mac, Linux, iPhone, iPad and Android devices.

The Keyword Cloud is linked with Wikipedia Knowledge Base. When you click on the keyword in the cloud you will be presented with an instant Visual Summary.

The keywords and summaries are easily exported to other applications such as word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications like Mindjet MindManager, MindGenius, XMind, and any other mind mapping application.

The summaries are stored in a knowledge library.

Report writers can be easily used for knowledge mining of the summaries, keywords and links. The Wikipedia Knowledge Base search function works as a back-of-the-book index pointing to the most relevant summaries and links.

For more information about installing WikiSummarizer for your organization or as a cloud server please contact wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

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Silicon: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

Visual presentation communicates information clearly and effectively through graphical means. WikiSummarizer is a Web-based application that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents them as Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base.

WikiSummarizer is an interactive learning and teaching tool providing effective graphical visualization that reduces complex information and provides clear and attractive presentation of the essential points. The interactive summaries are easily shared and published in blogs, websites and documents as digital Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds.

It is easy to collaborate and mine information using the WikiSummarizer summaries in blogs, websites, word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications, databases and content management systems.

This Visual Summary presents the keywords and the summaries of the Wikipedia article about "Silicon". The Visual Summary map and the Keyword Cloud were automatically created by WikiSummarizer.

Here is a link to the "Silicon" Visual Summary for navigation in your browser.

 

 

Keyword Cloud with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base

 

Essential Summary

 

Wikipedia article:  Silicon

 

Silicon

 

Silicon (100)

 

·         Controversy about silicon's character dates to its discovery: silicon was first prepared and characterized in pure form in 1824, and given the name silicium (from Latin: silicis, flints), with an -ium word-ending to suggest a metal.

 

·         It is most widely distributed in dusts, sands, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates.

 

·         Over 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the earth's crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen.

 

·         Most silicon is used commercially without being separated, and indeed often with little processing of compounds from nature.

 

·         Elemental silicon also has a large impact on the modern world economy.

 

·         Although most free silicon is used in the steel refining, aluminum-casting, and fine chemical industries (often to make fumed silica), the relatively small portion of very highly purified silicon that is used in semiconductor electronics (< 10%) is perhaps even more critical.

 

·         Because of wide use of silicon in integrated circuits, the basis of most computers, a great deal of modern technology depends on it.

 

·         Naturally occurring silicon is composed of three stable isotopes, silicon-28, silicon-29, and silicon-30, with silicon-28 being the most abundant (92% natural abundance).

 

·         The most common decay mode of six isotopes with mass numbers lower than the most abundant stable isotope, silicon-28, is β+, primarily forming aluminium isotopes (13 protons) as decay products.

 

·         Silicon is usually found in the form of complex silicate minerals, and less often as silicon dioxide (silica, a major component of common sand).

 

·         The crystals have the empirical formula of silicon dioxide, but do not consist of separate silicon dioxide molecules in the manner of solid carbon dioxide.

 

·         Ferrosilicon, an iron-silicon alloy that contains varying ratios of elemental silicon and iron, accounts for about 80% of the world's production of elemental silicon, with China, the leading supplier of elemental silicon, providing 4.6 million tonnes (or 2/3 of the world output) of silicon, most of which is in the form of ferrosilicon.

 

·         It makes up about 20% of the world total elemental silicon production, with less than 1 to 2% of total elemental silicon (5–10% of metallurgical grade silicon) ever purified to higher grades for use in electronics.

 

·         Silicon dihalides are formed by the high temperature reaction of tetrahalides and silicon; with a structure analogous to a carbene they are reactive compounds.

 

·         Silicon dioxide is a high melting solid with a number of different crystal forms; the most familiar of which is the mineral quartz.

 

·         Pure monocrystalline silicon is used to produce silicon wafers used in the semiconductor industry, in electronics and in some high-cost and high-efficiency photovoltaic applications.

 

 

———————————–

· This summary was produced by WikiSummarizer for Wikipedia

 

· WikiSummarizer is an automated text summarization and text mining application created by Context Discovery Inc

 

· If you are interested in using WikiSummarizer technology please contact us at wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

——————————————————

About Context Discovery WikiSummarizer

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based summarization portal that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents the results as a structured outline, a Visual Summary and a Keyword Cloud.

The Visual Summary can be navigated in any browser on Windows, Mac, Linux, iPhone, iPad and Android devices.

The Keyword Cloud is linked with Wikipedia Knowledge Base. When you click on the keyword in the cloud you will be presented with an instant Visual Summary.

The keywords and summaries are easily exported to other applications such as word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications like Mindjet MindManager, MindGenius, XMind, and any other mind mapping application.

The summaries are stored in a knowledge library.

Report writers can be easily used for knowledge mining of the summaries, keywords and links. The Wikipedia Knowledge Base search function works as a back-of-the-book index pointing to the most relevant summaries and links.

For more information about installing WikiSummarizer for your organization or as a cloud server please contact wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

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Aluminium: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

Visual presentation communicates information clearly and effectively through graphical means. WikiSummarizer is a Web-based application that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents them as Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base.

WikiSummarizer is an interactive learning and teaching tool providing effective graphical visualization that reduces complex information and provides clear and attractive presentation of the essential points. The interactive summaries are easily shared and published in blogs, websites and documents as digital Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds.

It is easy to collaborate and mine information using the WikiSummarizer summaries in blogs, websites, word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications, databases and content management systems.

This Visual Summary presents the keywords and the summaries of the Wikipedia article about "Aluminium". The Visual Summary map and the Keyword Cloud were automatically created by WikiSummarizer.

Here is a link to the "Aluminium" Visual Summary for navigation in your browser.

 

 

 

Keyword Cloud with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base

 

 

Essential Summary

 

Wikipedia article:  Aluminium

 

Aluminium

 

Aluminium (100)

 

·         Aluminium ( /ˌжljuːˈmɪniəm/ a-lew-mi-nee-əm) or aluminum (US English) ( /ˌəlˈuːmɪnəm/, ə-loo-mi-nəm) is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements.

 

·         Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust.

 

·         Aluminium is remarkable for the metal's low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation.

 

·         Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials.

 

·         The most useful compounds of aluminium, at least on a weight basis, are the oxides and sulfates.

 

·         Because of their prevalence, potential beneficial (or otherwise) biological roles of aluminium compounds are of continuing interest.

 

·         Corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the metal is exposed to air, effectively preventing further oxidation.

 

·         Aluminium is one of the few metals that retain full silvery reflectance in finely powdered form, making it an important component of silver-colored paints.

 

·         Native aluminium has been reported in cold seeps in the northeastern continental slope of the South China Sea and Chen et al. (2011) have proposed a theory of its origin as resulting by reduction from tetrahydroxoaluminate Al(OH)4 to metallic aluminium by bacteria.

 

·         Almost all metallic aluminium is produced from the ore bauxite (AlOx(OH)3–2x).

 

·         For example, direct reduction with carbon, as is used to produce iron, is not chemically possible because aluminium is a stronger reducing agent than carbon.

 

·         The electrolytic process replaced the Wцhler process, which involved the reduction of anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium.

 

·         Both of the electrodes used in the electrolysis of aluminium oxide are carbon.

 

·         Oxide and hydroxides Aluminium forms one stable oxide, known by its mineral name corundum.

 

·         The important aluminium hydride is lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4), which is used in as a reducing agent in organic chemistry.

 

·         In 1926, the American Chemical Society officially decided to use aluminum in its publications; American dictionaries typically label the spelling aluminium as a British variant.

———————————–

· This summary was produced by WikiSummarizer for Wikipedia

 

· WikiSummarizer is an automated text summarization and text mining application created by Context Discovery Inc

 

· If you are interested in using WikiSummarizer technology please contact us at wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

——————————————————

About Context Discovery WikiSummarizer

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based summarization portal that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents the results as a structured outline, a Visual Summary and a Keyword Cloud.

The Visual Summary can be navigated in any browser on Windows, Mac, Linux, iPhone, iPad and Android devices.

The Keyword Cloud is linked with Wikipedia Knowledge Base. When you click on the keyword in the cloud you will be presented with an instant Visual Summary.

The keywords and summaries are easily exported to other applications such as word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications like Mindjet MindManager, MindGenius, XMind, and any other mind mapping application.

The summaries are stored in a knowledge library.

Report writers can be easily used for knowledge mining of the summaries, keywords and links. The Wikipedia Knowledge Base search function works as a back-of-the-book index pointing to the most relevant summaries and links.

For more information about installing WikiSummarizer for your organization or as a cloud server please contact wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

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Magnesium: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

Visual presentation communicates information clearly and effectively through graphical means. WikiSummarizer is a Web-based application that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents them as Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base.

WikiSummarizer is an interactive learning and teaching tool providing effective graphical visualization that reduces complex information and provides clear and attractive presentation of the essential points. The interactive summaries are easily shared and published in blogs, websites and documents as digital Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds.

It is easy to collaborate and mine information using the WikiSummarizer summaries in blogs, websites, word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications, databases and content management systems.

This Visual Summary presents the keywords and the summaries of the Wikipedia article about "Magnesium". The Visual Summary map and the Keyword Cloud were automatically created by WikiSummarizer.

Here is a link to the "Magnesium" Visual Summary for navigation in your browser.

 

 

Keyword Cloud with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base

 

  

Essential Summary

 Wikipedia article:  Magnesium

 

Magnesium

 

Magnesium (100)

 

·         Magnesium is the fourth most common element in the Earth as a whole (behind iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of planet's mantle.

 

·         The relative abundance of magnesium is related to the fact that it is easily built up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of three helium nuclei to carbon (which in turn is made from three helium nuclei).

 

·         Since magnesium is less dense than aluminium, these alloys are prized for their relative lightness and strength.

 

·         It tarnishes slightly when exposed to air, although unlike the alkali metals, storage in an oxygen-free environment is unnecessary because magnesium is protected by a thin layer of oxide that is fairly impermeable and difficult to remove.

 

·         Like its lower periodic table group neighbor calcium, magnesium reacts with water at room temperature, though it reacts much more slowly than calcium.

 

·         Once ignited, it is difficult to extinguish, being able to burn in nitrogen (forming magnesium nitride), carbon dioxide (forming magnesium oxide and carbon) and water (forming magnesium oxide and hydrogen).

 

·         Magnesium compounds are typically white crystals.

 

·         Small amounts of dissolved magnesium ion contribute to the tartness and taste of natural waters.

 

·         Magnesium ion in large amounts is an ionic laxative, and magnesium sulfate (common name: Epsom salt) is sometimes used for this purpose.

 

·         So-called "milk of magnesia" is a water suspension of one of the few insoluble magnesium compounds, magnesium hydroxide.

 

·         Magnesium hydroxide (brucite) is insoluble in water so it can be filtered out, and reacted with hydrochloric acid to obtain concentrated magnesium chloride.

 

·         The main applications of magnesium are, in order: component of aluminium alloys, in die-casting (alloyed with zinc), to remove sulfur in the production of iron and steel, the production of titanium in the Kroll process.

 

·         Specialty, high-grade car wheels of magnesium alloy are called "mag wheels", although the term is often more broadly misapplied to include aluminum wheels.

 

·         Historically, magnesium was one of the main aerospace construction metals and was used for German military aircraft as early as World War I and extensively for German aircraft in World War II.

 

·         Niche and illustrative uses of magnesium compounds Magnesium sulfate, as the heptahydrate called Epsom salts, is used as bath salts, as a laxative, and as a highly soluble fertilizer.

 

·         Magnesium deficiency in plants causes late-season yellowing between leaf veins, especially in older leaves, and can be corrected by applying Epsom salts (which is rapidly leached), or else crushed dolomitic limestone to the soil.

 

·         Serum magnesium levels may appear normal even in cases of underlying intracellular deficiency, although no known mechanism maintains a homeostatic level in the blood other than renal excretion of high blood levels.

 

·         Magnesium is capable of reducing water to the highly flammable hydrogen gas: As a result, water cannot be used to extinguish magnesium fires; the hydrogen gas produced will only intensify the fire.

 

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· This summary was produced by WikiSummarizer for Wikipedia

 

· WikiSummarizer is an automated text summarization and text mining application created by Context Discovery Inc

 

· If you are interested in using WikiSummarizer technology please contact us at wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

——————————————————

About Context Discovery WikiSummarizer

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based summarization portal that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents the results as a structured outline, a Visual Summary and a Keyword Cloud.

The Visual Summary can be navigated in any browser on Windows, Mac, Linux, iPhone, iPad and Android devices.

The Keyword Cloud is linked with Wikipedia Knowledge Base. When you click on the keyword in the cloud you will be presented with an instant Visual Summary.

The keywords and summaries are easily exported to other applications such as word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications like Mindjet MindManager, MindGenius, XMind, and any other mind mapping application.

The summaries are stored in a knowledge library.

Report writers can be easily used for knowledge mining of the summaries, keywords and links. The Wikipedia Knowledge Base search function works as a back-of-the-book index pointing to the most relevant summaries and links.

For more information about installing WikiSummarizer for your organization or as a cloud server please contact wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

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Sodium: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

Visual presentation communicates information clearly and effectively through graphical means. WikiSummarizer is a Web-based application that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents them as Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base.

 WikiSummarizer is an interactive learning and teaching tool providing effective graphical  visualization that reduces complex information and provides clear and attractive presentation of the essential points. The interactive summaries are easily shared and published in blogs, websites and documents as  digital Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds.

It is easy to collaborate and mine information using the WikiSummarizer summaries in blogs, websites, word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications, databases and content management systems.

This Visual Summary presents the keywords and the summaries of the Wikipedia article about "Sodium". The Visual Summary map and the Keyword Cloud were automatically created by WikiSummarizer.

Here is a link to the "Sodium" Visual Summary for navigation in your browser.

 

 

Keyword Cloud with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base

 

 

Essential Summary

 

Wikipedia article:  Sodium

 

Sodium

 

Sodium (100)

 

·         Many salts of sodium are highly soluble in water and are thus present in significant quantities in the Earth's bodies of water, most abundantly in the oceans as sodium chloride.

 

·         Many sodium compounds are useful, such as sodium hydroxide (lye) for soapmaking, and sodium chloride for use as a deicing agent and a nutrient.

 

·         In animals, sodium ions are used against potassium ions to build up charges on cell membranes, allowing transmission of nerve impulses when the charge is dissipated; it is therefore classified as a dietary inorganic macro-mineral.

 

·         When sodium or its compounds are introduced into a flame, they turn it yellow, because the heat excites sodium atoms and moves their valence electrons from the 3s orbital to the 3p orbital; as those electrons fall back to 3s, they emit a photon with a wavelength corresponding to the D line at 589.3 nm.

 

·         Sodium metal is highly reducing, with the reduction of sodium ions requiring −2.71 volts; other alkali metals have more negative potentials.

 

·         Like all the alkali metals, it reacts exothermically with water, to the point that sufficiently large pieces melt to a sphere and then explode; this reaction produces caustic sodium hydroxide and flammable hydrogen gas.

 

·         The insolubility of certain sodium minerals such as cryolite and feldspar arises from their polymeric anions, which in the case of feldspar is a polysilicate.

 

·         The sodium compounds that are the most important are common salt (NaCl), soda ash (Na2CO3), baking soda (NaHCO3), caustic soda (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), di- and tri-sodium phosphates, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3·5H2O), and borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O).

 

·         Like the other alkali metals, metallic sodium dissolves in ammonia and some other amines to give deeply coloured solutions.

 

·         The name sodium is thought to originate from the Arabic suda, meaning headache, as the headache-alleviating properties of sodium carbonate or soda were well known in early times.

 

·         The chemical abbreviation for sodium was first published by Jцns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols, and is a contraction of the element's new Latin name natrium, which refers to the Egyptian natron, a natural mineral salt primarily made of hydrated sodium carbonate.

 

·         Although sodium, sometimes called soda, had long been recognised in compounds, the metal itself was not isolated until 1807 by Humphry Davy through the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide.

 

·         Metallic sodium was first produced commercially in 1855 by carbothermal reduction of sodium carbonate at 1100 °C, in what is known as the Deville process: A related process based on the reduction of sodium hydroxide was developed in 1886.

 

·         Previous uses were for the making of tetraethyllead and titanium metal; because applications for these chemicals were discontinued, the production of sodium declined after 1970.

 

·         Heat transfer Liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid in some fast reactors, due to its high thermal conductivity and low neutron absorption cross section, which is required to achieve a high neutron flux; the high boiling point allows the reactor to operate at ambient pressure.

 

·         Sodium soaps are harder (higher melting) soaps than potassium soaps.

 

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· This summary was produced by WikiSummarizer for Wikipedia

 

· WikiSummarizer is an automated text summarization and text mining application created by Context Discovery Inc

 

· If you are interested in using WikiSummarizer technology please contact us at wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

——————————————————

About Context Discovery WikiSummarizer

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based summarization portal that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents the results as a structured outline, a Visual Summary and a Keyword Cloud.

The Visual Summary can be navigated in any browser on Windows, Mac, Linux, iPhone, iPad and Android devices.

The Keyword Cloud is linked with Wikipedia Knowledge Base. When you click on the keyword in the cloud you will be presented with an instant Visual Summary.

The keywords and summaries are easily exported to other applications such as word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications like Mindjet MindManager, MindGenius, XMind, and any other mind mapping application.

The summaries are stored in a knowledge library.

Report writers can be easily used for knowledge mining of the summaries, keywords and links. The Wikipedia Knowledge Base search function works as a back-of-the-book index pointing to the most relevant summaries and links.

For more information about installing WikiSummarizer for your organization or as a cloud server please contact wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

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