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Posts Tagged ‘Information Overload’

Sodium: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

Friday, January 20th, 2012

Visual presentation communicates information clearly and effectively through graphical means. WikiSummarizer is a Web-based application that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents them as Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base.

 WikiSummarizer is an interactive learning and teaching tool providing effective graphical  visualization that reduces complex information and provides clear and attractive presentation of the essential points. The interactive summaries are easily shared and published in blogs, websites and documents as  digital Visual Summaries, Tree Views and Keyword Clouds.

It is easy to collaborate and mine information using the WikiSummarizer summaries in blogs, websites, word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications, databases and content management systems.

This Visual Summary presents the keywords and the summaries of the Wikipedia article about "Sodium". The Visual Summary map and the Keyword Cloud were automatically created by WikiSummarizer.

Here is a link to the "Sodium" Visual Summary for navigation in your browser.

 

 

Keyword Cloud with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base

 

 

Essential Summary

 

Wikipedia article:  Sodium

 

Sodium

 

Sodium (100)

 

·         Many salts of sodium are highly soluble in water and are thus present in significant quantities in the Earth's bodies of water, most abundantly in the oceans as sodium chloride.

 

·         Many sodium compounds are useful, such as sodium hydroxide (lye) for soapmaking, and sodium chloride for use as a deicing agent and a nutrient.

 

·         In animals, sodium ions are used against potassium ions to build up charges on cell membranes, allowing transmission of nerve impulses when the charge is dissipated; it is therefore classified as a dietary inorganic macro-mineral.

 

·         When sodium or its compounds are introduced into a flame, they turn it yellow, because the heat excites sodium atoms and moves their valence electrons from the 3s orbital to the 3p orbital; as those electrons fall back to 3s, they emit a photon with a wavelength corresponding to the D line at 589.3 nm.

 

·         Sodium metal is highly reducing, with the reduction of sodium ions requiring −2.71 volts; other alkali metals have more negative potentials.

 

·         Like all the alkali metals, it reacts exothermically with water, to the point that sufficiently large pieces melt to a sphere and then explode; this reaction produces caustic sodium hydroxide and flammable hydrogen gas.

 

·         The insolubility of certain sodium minerals such as cryolite and feldspar arises from their polymeric anions, which in the case of feldspar is a polysilicate.

 

·         The sodium compounds that are the most important are common salt (NaCl), soda ash (Na2CO3), baking soda (NaHCO3), caustic soda (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), di- and tri-sodium phosphates, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3·5H2O), and borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O).

 

·         Like the other alkali metals, metallic sodium dissolves in ammonia and some other amines to give deeply coloured solutions.

 

·         The name sodium is thought to originate from the Arabic suda, meaning headache, as the headache-alleviating properties of sodium carbonate or soda were well known in early times.

 

·         The chemical abbreviation for sodium was first published by Jцns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols, and is a contraction of the element's new Latin name natrium, which refers to the Egyptian natron, a natural mineral salt primarily made of hydrated sodium carbonate.

 

·         Although sodium, sometimes called soda, had long been recognised in compounds, the metal itself was not isolated until 1807 by Humphry Davy through the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide.

 

·         Metallic sodium was first produced commercially in 1855 by carbothermal reduction of sodium carbonate at 1100 °C, in what is known as the Deville process: A related process based on the reduction of sodium hydroxide was developed in 1886.

 

·         Previous uses were for the making of tetraethyllead and titanium metal; because applications for these chemicals were discontinued, the production of sodium declined after 1970.

 

·         Heat transfer Liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid in some fast reactors, due to its high thermal conductivity and low neutron absorption cross section, which is required to achieve a high neutron flux; the high boiling point allows the reactor to operate at ambient pressure.

 

·         Sodium soaps are harder (higher melting) soaps than potassium soaps.

 

————————————–

· This summary was produced by WikiSummarizer for Wikipedia

 

· WikiSummarizer is an automated text summarization and text mining application created by Context Discovery Inc

 

· If you are interested in using WikiSummarizer technology please contact us at wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

——————————————————

About Context Discovery WikiSummarizer

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based summarization portal that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents the results as a structured outline, a Visual Summary and a Keyword Cloud.

The Visual Summary can be navigated in any browser on Windows, Mac, Linux, iPhone, iPad and Android devices.

The Keyword Cloud is linked with Wikipedia Knowledge Base. When you click on the keyword in the cloud you will be presented with an instant Visual Summary.

The keywords and summaries are easily exported to other applications such as word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications like Mindjet MindManager, MindGenius, XMind, and any other mind mapping application.

The summaries are stored in a knowledge library.

Report writers can be easily used for knowledge mining of the summaries, keywords and links. The Wikipedia Knowledge Base search function works as a back-of-the-book index pointing to the most relevant summaries and links.

For more information about installing WikiSummarizer for your organization or as a cloud server please contact wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

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Fluorine: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

Friday, December 9th, 2011

This Visual Summary presents the keywords and the key summaries of the Wikipedia article about "Fluorine". The Visual Summary map was automatically created by WikiSummarizer.

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based application that summarizes Wikipedia articles and provides Wikipedia Knowledge Base for comprehensive references, and as learning tool. The Wikipedia summaries can be exported to word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications, databases and content management systems.

Here is a link to the "Fluorine" Visual Summary for navigation in your browser.

 

Wikipedia article:  Fluorine

 

Fluorine

 

Fluorine (100)

 

·         At standard pressure and temperature, fluorine is a pale yellow gas composed of diatomic molecules, F2.

 

·         It was not until 1886 that elemental fluorine was obtained by French chemist Henri Moissan, whose method of electrolysis remains the only industrial production method of fluorine gas.

 

·         Fluorine forms stable compounds, fluorides, with all elements except helium and neon, for which the reaction has been attempted.

 

·         Heavier metal elements such as uranium can form volatile coordination compounds (separate molecules with several fluorine atoms surrounding a metal atom).

 

·         Fluorine occurs naturally on Earth exclusively in the form of its only stable isotope, fluorine-19, which makes the element both monoisotopic and mononuclidic.

 

·         All isotopes heavier than the stable fluorine-19 decay via beta minus decay (electron emission), for some isotopes possibly together with neutron emission.

 

·         Fluorine is so reactive that water, halogens, and most other substances, even generally nonreactive ones such as radon, burn with a bright flame in a jet of fluorine gas.

 

·         Three minerals exist on earth that contain enough fluorine to be mined and used as industrial resources.

 

·         Fluorine exists in the −1 oxidation state in all compounds except for elemental fluorine, where the atoms are bonded to each other and thus at oxidation state 0.

 

·         Organofluorine compounds are synthesized via both direct reaction with fluorine gas, which can be dangerously reactive, or reaction with fluorinating reagents such as sulfur tetrafluoride.

 

·         The enzyme adenosyl-fluoride synthase is capable of biologically synthesizing the carbon–fluorine bond.

 

metals (100)

 

·         Most frequently, the metals must be in powder forms, because many metals form layers of fluoride on their surfaces that resist further oxidation.

 

fluoride (78)

 

·         Most frequently, the metals must be in powder forms, because many metals form layers of fluoride on their surfaces that resist further oxidation.

 

·         The most important is fluorite, which is used in smelting, construction, and the manufacture of hydrogen fluoride.

 

·         Due to the basicity of the fluoride ion, soluble fluorides give basic water solutions.

 

·         The enzyme adenosyl-fluoride synthase is capable of biologically synthesizing the carbon–fluorine bond.

 

elemental fluorine (64)

 

·         It was not until 1886 that elemental fluorine was obtained by French chemist Henri Moissan, whose method of electrolysis remains the only industrial production method of fluorine gas.

 

·         Fluorine exists in the −1 oxidation state in all compounds except for elemental fluorine, where the atoms are bonded to each other and thus at oxidation state 0.

 

gas (64)

 

·         At standard pressure and temperature, fluorine is a pale yellow gas composed of diatomic molecules, F2.

 

·         It was not until 1886 that elemental fluorine was obtained by French chemist Henri Moissan, whose method of electrolysis remains the only industrial production method of fluorine gas.

 

·         Fluorine is so reactive that water, halogens, and most other substances, even generally nonreactive ones such as radon, burn with a bright flame in a jet of fluorine gas.

 

·         Tetrafluorides are the borderline: for example, zirconium tetrafluoride is an ionic solid, but germanium tetrafluoride is a molecular gas.

 

·         Organofluorine compounds are synthesized via both direct reaction with fluorine gas, which can be dangerously reactive, or reaction with fluorinating reagents such as sulfur tetrafluoride.

 

fluorine-19 (61)

 

·         Fluorine occurs naturally on Earth exclusively in the form of its only stable isotope, fluorine-19, which makes the element both monoisotopic and mononuclidic.

 

·         All isotopes heavier than the stable fluorine-19 decay via beta minus decay (electron emission), for some isotopes possibly together with neutron emission.

 

chemicals (61)

 

·         Inorganic fluorides and organofluorine compounds find use in a variety of materials and chemicals, including important pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, lubricants, and textiles.

 

molecules (54)

 

·         At standard pressure and temperature, fluorine is a pale yellow gas composed of diatomic molecules, F2.

 

·         Heavier metal elements such as uranium can form volatile coordination compounds (separate molecules with several fluorine atoms surrounding a metal atom).

 

·         The bond energy is similar to the easily cleaved oxygen–oxygen bonds of peroxides or nitrogen–nitrogen bonds of hydrazines and significantly weaker than those of dichlorine or dibromine molecules.

 

acid (43)

 

·         Hydrofluoric acid, in contrast to other haloacids such as hydrochloric acid, is only a weak acid in water, but it is nonetheless extremely corrosive.

 

·         Andreas Sigismund Marggraf made the first recorded preparation of "fluoric acid" (hydrofluoric acid in modern nomenclature) in 1764, when he heated fluorite with sulfuric acid in glass, which was greatly corroded by the product.

 

minerals (41)

 

·         Three minerals exist on earth that contain enough fluorine to be mined and used as industrial resources.

 

————————————–

· This summary was produced by WikiSummarizer for Wikipedia

 

· WikiSummarizer is an automated text summarization and text mining application created by Context Discovery Inc

 

· If you are interested in using WikiSummarizer technology please contact us at wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

——————————————————

About Context Discovery WikiSummarizer

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based summarization portal that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents the results as a structured outline, a Visual Summary and a Keyword Cloud.

The Visual Summary can be navigated in any browser on Windows, Mac, Linux, iPhone, iPad and Android devices.

The Keyword Cloud is linked with Wikipedia Knowledge Base. When you click on the keyword in the cloud you will be presented with an instant Visual Summary.

The keywords and summaries are easily exported to other applications such as word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications like Mindjet MindManager, MindGenius, XMind, and any other mind mapping application.

The summaries are stored in a knowledge library.

Report writers can be easily used for knowledge mining of the summaries, keywords and links. The Wikipedia Knowledge Base search function works as a back-of-the-book index pointing to the most relevant summaries and links.

For more information about installing WikiSummarizer for your organization or as a cloud server please contact wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

 

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What users are saying about WikiSummarizer

Monday, November 28th, 2011

 

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based application that summarizes Wikipedia articles and provides Wikipedia Knowledge Base for comprehensive references, and as a  learning tool. The Wikipedia summaries can be exported to word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications, databases and content management systems.

Here are some comment from users about WikiSummarizer:

WikiSummarizer Cool Add in

 "WikiSummarizer provides readers with essential points of an article quickly and with clarity helping them realize key points with less effort."

  Troy Larson – Mindjet Blog

 

 WikiSummarizer: A Google Wonder Wheel Substitute

 "Called the WikiSummarizer this tool automatically generates outlines from Wikipedia articles on any topic. The result—much like the result of a Wonder Wheel search—-is a condensed list of important subtopics connected to a broader concept."

 Bill Ferriter – The Tempered Radical

 

WikiSummarizer Outlines Wikipedia

 "WikiSummarizer is a site that allows you to search Wikipedia, have articles summarized by key points, and provides lists of articles that are related to your original search."

 Richard Byrne – Free Technology for Teachers

 

 Read Less, Learn More – WikiSummarizer

 "The immediate benefit from a summary comes from a review of the keywords, giving the reader instant insight into the substance and meaning of the text. Further review of the extracted sentences adds to this initial insight."

 Steve Rothwell – Peace of Mind Blog

 

Click on the image to see more references about WikiSummarizer.

 

 

About Context Discovery WikiSummarizer

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based summarization portal that summarizes Wikipedia articles and presents the results as a structured outline, a Visual Summary and a Keyword Cloud.

The Visual Summary can be navigated in any browser on Windows, Mac, Linux, iPhone, iPad and Android devices.

The Keyword Cloud is linked with Wikipedia Knowledge Base. When you click on the keyword in the cloud you will be presented with an instant Visual Summary.

The keywords and summaries are easily exported to other applications such as word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications like Mindjet MindManager, MindGenius, XMind, and any other mind mapping application.

The summaries are stored in a knowledge library.

Report writers can be easily used for knowledge mining of the summaries, keywords and links. The Wikipedia Knowledge Base search function works as a back-of-the-book index pointing to the most relevant summaries and links.

For more information about installing WikiSummarizer for your organization or as a cloud server please contact wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

 

 

 

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Oxygen: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

Saturday, November 26th, 2011

This Visual Summary presents the keywords and the key summaries of the Wikipedia article about "Oxygen". The Visual Summary map was automatically created by WikiSummarizer.

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based application that summarizes Wikipedia articles and provides Wikipedia Knowledge Base for comprehensive references, and as learning tool. The Wikipedia summaries can be exported to word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications, databases and content management systems.

Here is a link to the "Oxygen" Visual Summary for navigation in your browser.

 

Wikipedia article:  Oxygen

 

Oxygen

 

Oxygen (100)

 

·         Oxygen ( /ˈɒksɨdʒɨn/ ok-si-jin) is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) ("acid", literally "sharp", referring to the sour taste of acids) and -γενής (-genēs) ("producer", literally "begetter"), because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition.

 

·         Oxygen is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetallic element that readily forms compounds (notably oxides) with almost all other elements.

 

·         Oxygen is a strong oxidizing agent and has the second highest electronegativity of all the elements (only fluorine has a higher electronegativity).

 

·         By mass, oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen and helium and the most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust, making up almost half of the crust's mass.

 

·         Free oxygen is too chemically reactive to appear on Earth without the photosynthetic action of living organisms, which use the energy of sunlight to produce elemental oxygen from water.

 

·         Oxygen is toxic to obligately anaerobic organisms, which were the dominant form of early life on Earth until O2 began to accumulate in the atmosphere.

 

·         The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion.

 

·         Oxygen is produced industrially by fractional distillation of liquefied air, use of zeolites with pressure-cycling to concentrate oxygen from air, electrolysis of water and other means.

 

·         At standard temperature and pressure, oxygen is a very pale blue, odorless gas with the molecular formula O2, in which the two oxygen atoms are chemically bonded to each other with a spin triplet electron configuration.

 

·         Oxygen is the third most abundant chemical element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.

 

·         The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis, which is responsible for modern Earth's atmosphere.

 

·         Lavoisier renamed 'vital air' to oxygиne in 1777 from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) (acid, literally "sharp," from the taste of acids) and -γενής (-genēs) (producer, literally begetter), because he mistakenly believed that oxygen was a constituent of all acids.

 

·         In 1805, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Alexander von Humboldt showed that water is formed of two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen; and by 1811 Amedeo Avogadro had arrived at the correct interpretation of water's composition, based on what is now called Avogadro's law and the assumption of diatomic elemental molecules.

 

·         Hyperbaric (high-pressure) medicine uses special oxygen chambers to increase the partial pressure of O2 around the patient and, when needed, the medical staff.

 

·         Other important organic compounds that contain oxygen are: glycerol, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, citric acid, acetic anhydride, and acetamide.

 

gas (100)

 

·         At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a very pale blue, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas with the formula O2.

 

·         At standard temperature and pressure, oxygen is a very pale blue, odorless gas with the molecular formula O2, in which the two oxygen atoms are chemically bonded to each other with a spin triplet electron configuration.

 

·         In the meantime, on August 1, 1774, an experiment conducted by the British clergyman Joseph Priestley focused sunlight on mercuric oxide (HgO) inside a glass tube, which liberated a gas he named "dephlogisticated air".

 

pressure (89)

 

·         At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a very pale blue, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas with the formula O2.

 

·         Oxygen is produced industrially by fractional distillation of liquefied air, use of zeolites with pressure-cycling to concentrate oxygen from air, electrolysis of water and other means.

 

·         At standard temperature and pressure, oxygen is a very pale blue, odorless gas with the molecular formula O2, in which the two oxygen atoms are chemically bonded to each other with a spin triplet electron configuration.

 

·         Hyperbaric (high-pressure) medicine uses special oxygen chambers to increase the partial pressure of O2 around the patient and, when needed, the medical staff.

 

compounds (45)

 

·         Oxygen is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetallic element that readily forms compounds (notably oxides) with almost all other elements.

 

·         Other important organic compounds that contain oxygen are: glycerol, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, citric acid, acetic anhydride, and acetamide.

 

acids (43)

 

·         Oxygen ( /ˈɒksɨdʒɨn/ ok-si-jin) is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) ("acid", literally "sharp", referring to the sour taste of acids) and -γενής (-genēs) ("producer", literally "begetter"), because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition.

 

·         Lavoisier renamed 'vital air' to oxygиne in 1777 from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) (acid, literally "sharp," from the taste of acids) and -γενής (-genēs) (producer, literally begetter), because he mistakenly believed that oxygen was a constituent of all acids.

 

oxide (40)

 

·         In the meantime, on August 1, 1774, an experiment conducted by the British clergyman Joseph Priestley focused sunlight on mercuric oxide (HgO) inside a glass tube, which liberated a gas he named "dephlogisticated air".

 

mass (35)

 

·         By mass, oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen and helium and the most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust, making up almost half of the crust's mass.

 

temperature (32)

 

·         At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a very pale blue, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas with the formula O2.

 

·         At standard temperature and pressure, oxygen is a very pale blue, odorless gas with the molecular formula O2, in which the two oxygen atoms are chemically bonded to each other with a spin triplet electron configuration.

 

air (31)

 

·         Oxygen is produced industrially by fractional distillation of liquefied air, use of zeolites with pressure-cycling to concentrate oxygen from air, electrolysis of water and other means.

 

·         In the meantime, on August 1, 1774, an experiment conducted by the British clergyman Joseph Priestley focused sunlight on mercuric oxide (HgO) inside a glass tube, which liberated a gas he named "dephlogisticated air".

 

·         Lavoisier renamed 'vital air' to oxygиne in 1777 from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) (acid, literally "sharp," from the taste of acids) and -γενής (-genēs) (producer, literally begetter), because he mistakenly believed that oxygen was a constituent of all acids.

 

atoms (24)

 

·         At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a very pale blue, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas with the formula O2.

 

·         At standard temperature and pressure, oxygen is a very pale blue, odorless gas with the molecular formula O2, in which the two oxygen atoms are chemically bonded to each other with a spin triplet electron configuration.

————————————–

· This summary was produced by WikiSummarizer for Wikipedia

 

· WikiSummarizer is an automated text summarization and text mining application created by Context Discovery Inc

 

· If you are interested in using WikiSummarizer technology please contact us at wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

——————————————————

About Context Discovery WikiSummarizer

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based summarization portal that summarizes Web pages and documents in English, French, Spanish, and German.

The summaries are stored in organizational knowledge library. Report writers, including web-based ones, can be easily used for knowledge mining of the summaries, keywords and links. The Wikipedia Knowledge Base search function works as a back-of-the-book index pointing to the most relevant summaries and links.

The keywords and summaries are easily exported to other applications such as word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications like Mindjet MindManager, MindGenius, XMind, and any other mind mapping application.

The Visual Summary can be navigated in any browser on Windows, Mac, Linux, iPhone, iPad and Android devices.

For more information about installing WikiSummarizer for your organization or as a cloud server please contact wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

 

 

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Nitrogen: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

Thursday, November 10th, 2011

This Visual Summary presents the keywords and the key summaries of the Wikipedia article about "Nitrogen". The Visual Summary map was automatically created by WikiSummarizer.

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based application that summarizes Wikipedia articles and provides Wikipedia Knowledge Base for comprehensive references, and as learning tool. The Wikipedia summaries can be exported to word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications, databases and content management systems.

Here is a link to the "Nitrogen" Visual Summary for navigation in your browser.

 

 

 

Wikipedia article:  Nitrogen

 

Nitrogen

 

Nitrogen (100)

 

·         Nitrogen ( /ˈnaɪtrɵdʒɨn/ ny-trə-jin) is a chemical element that has the symbol N, atomic number of 7 and atomic mass 14.00674 u.

 

·         Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions, constituting 78.08% by volume of Earth's atmosphere.

 

·         Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.

 

·         The extremely strong bond in elemental nitrogen dominates nitrogen chemistry, causing difficulty for both organisms and industry in breaking the bond to convert the N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time causing release of large amounts of often useful energy when the compounds burn, explode, or decay back into nitrogen gas.

 

·         Nitrogen occurs in all living organisms, and the nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere.

 

·         Nitrogen is formally considered to have been discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air or fixed air.

 

·         Chaptal's meaning was that nitrogen gas is the essential part of nitric acid, in turn formed from saltpetre (potassium nitrate), then known as nitre.

 

·         Other classes of nitrogen anions (negatively charged ions) are the poisonous azides (N− 3), which are linear and isoelectronic to carbon dioxide, but which bind to important iron-containing enzymes in the body in a manner more resembling cyanide.

 

·         Other notable nitrogen-containing drugs are drugs derived from plant alkaloids, such as morphine (there exist many alkaloids known to have pharmacological effects; in some cases, they appear natural chemical defenses of plants against predation).

 

compounds (100)

 

·         Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.

 

·         The extremely strong bond in elemental nitrogen dominates nitrogen chemistry, causing difficulty for both organisms and industry in breaking the bond to convert the N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time causing release of large amounts of often useful energy when the compounds burn, explode, or decay back into nitrogen gas.

 

·         Nitrogen occurs in all living organisms, and the nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere.

 

nitric acid (92)

 

·         Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.

 

·         Chaptal's meaning was that nitrogen gas is the essential part of nitric acid, in turn formed from saltpetre (potassium nitrate), then known as nitre.

 

atmosphere (85)

 

·         Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions, constituting 78.08% by volume of Earth's atmosphere.

 

·         Nitrogen occurs in all living organisms, and the nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere.

 

nitrate (82)

 

·         Chaptal's meaning was that nitrogen gas is the essential part of nitric acid, in turn formed from saltpetre (potassium nitrate), then known as nitre.

 

nitrogen gas (64)

 

·         The extremely strong bond in elemental nitrogen dominates nitrogen chemistry, causing difficulty for both organisms and industry in breaking the bond to convert the N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time causing release of large amounts of often useful energy when the compounds burn, explode, or decay back into nitrogen gas.

 

·         Chaptal's meaning was that nitrogen gas is the essential part of nitric acid, in turn formed from saltpetre (potassium nitrate), then known as nitre.

 

air (60)

 

·         Nitrogen occurs in all living organisms, and the nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere.

 

·         Nitrogen is formally considered to have been discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air or fixed air.

 

·         The production of electronic parts such as transistors, diodes, and integrated circuits Dried and pressurized, as a dielectric gas for high-voltage equipment The manufacturing of stainless steel Used in military aircraft fuel systems to reduce fire hazard, (see inerting system) On top of liquid explosives as a safety measure Filling automotive and aircraft tires due to its inertness and lack of moisture or oxidative qualities, as opposed to air.

 

explosives (46)

 

·         Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.

 

·         The production of electronic parts such as transistors, diodes, and integrated circuits Dried and pressurized, as a dielectric gas for high-voltage equipment The manufacturing of stainless steel Used in military aircraft fuel systems to reduce fire hazard, (see inerting system) On top of liquid explosives as a safety measure Filling automotive and aircraft tires due to its inertness and lack of moisture or oxidative qualities, as opposed to air.

 

ammonia (39)

 

·         Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.

 

decay (28)

 

·         The extremely strong bond in elemental nitrogen dominates nitrogen chemistry, causing difficulty for both organisms and industry in breaking the bond to convert the N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time causing release of large amounts of often useful energy when the compounds burn, explode, or decay back into nitrogen gas.

 

————————————–

· This summary was produced by WikiSummarizer for Wikipedia

 

· WikiSummarizer is an automated text summarization and text mining application created by Context Discovery Inc

 

· If you are interested in using WikiSummarizer technology please contact us at wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

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About Context Discovery WikiSummarizer

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based summarization portal that summarizes Web pages and documents in English, French, Spanish, and German.

The summaries are stored in organizational knowledge library. Report writers, including web-based ones, can be easily used for knowledge mining of the summaries, keywords and links. The Wikipedia Knowledge Base search function works as a back-of-the-book index pointing to the most relevant summaries and links.

The keywords and summaries are easily exported to other applications such as word editors, browsers, mind mapping applications like Mindjet MindManager, MindGenius, XMind, and any other mind mapping application.

The Visual Summary can be navigated in any browser on Windows, Mac, Linux, iPhone, iPad and Android devices.

For more information about installing WikiSummarizer for your organization or as a cloud server please contact wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

 

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Posted by Henry | Comments Off