Boron: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

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Wikipedia article:  Boron

 

 

Boron (100)

 

·         Boron is a metalloid.

 

·         However, boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals.

 

·         Chemically uncombined boron is not found naturally on Earth.

 

·         Industrially, very pure isolated boron is produced with difficulty, as boron tends to form refractory materials containing small amounts of carbon or other elements.

 

·         Several allotropes of boron exist: amorphous boron is a brown powder and crystalline boron is black, extremely hard (about 9.5 on Mohs' scale), and a poor conductor at room temperature.

·         Elemental boron is used as a dopant in the semiconductor industry.

 

·         The major industrial-scale uses of boron compounds are in sodium perborate bleaches, and the borax component of fiberglass insulation.

 

·         Boron compounds were relatively rarely used chemicals until the late 1800s when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company first popularized these compounds and made them in volume and hence cheap Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy and by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thйnard In 1808 Davy observed that electric current sent through a solution of borates produced a brown precipitate on one of the electrodes.

 

·         In the diamond-like structure called cubic boron nitride (tradename Borazon), boron atoms exist in the tetrahedral structure of carbons atoms in diamond, but one in every four B-N bonds can be viewed as a coordinate covalent bond, wherein two electrons are donated by the nitrogen atom which acts as the Lewis base to a bond to the Lewis acidic boron(III) centre.

 

·         Binary metal-boron compounds, the metal borides, feature boron in oxidation state less than III. Illustrative is magnesium diboride (MgB2).

 

·         Several industrial-scale enrichment processes have been developed, however only the fractionated vacuum distillation of the dimethyl ether adduct of boron trifluoride (DME-BF3) and column chromatography of borates are being used.

 

·         Pure boron can be prepared by reducing volatile boron halides with hydrogen at high temperatures.

 

·         Ultrapure boron, for the use in semiconductor industry, is produced by the decomposition of diborane at high temperatures and then further purified with the zone melting or Czochralski processes.

 

·         Boron carbide Boron carbide is a ceramic material which is obtained by decomposing B2O3 with carbon in the electric furnace: Boron carbide's stucture is only approximately B4C, and it shows a clear depletion of carbon from this suggested stoichiometric ratio.

 

compounds (100)

 

·         However, boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals.

 

·         The major industrial-scale uses of boron compounds are in sodium perborate bleaches, and the borax component of fiberglass insulation.

 

·         Boron compounds were relatively rarely used chemicals until the late 1800s when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company first popularized these compounds and made them in volume and hence cheap Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy and by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thйnard In 1808 Davy observed that electric current sent through a solution of borates produced a brown precipitate on one of the electrodes.

 

·         Binary metal-boron compounds, the metal borides, feature boron in oxidation state less than III. Illustrative is magnesium diboride (MgB2).

 

materials (64)

 

·         Industrially, very pure isolated boron is produced with difficulty, as boron tends to form refractory materials containing small amounts of carbon or other elements.

 

borax (58)

 

·         The major industrial-scale uses of boron compounds are in sodium perborate bleaches, and the borax component of fiberglass insulation.

 

·         Boron compounds were relatively rarely used chemicals until the late 1800s when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company first popularized these compounds and made them in volume and hence cheap Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy and by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thйnard In 1808 Davy observed that electric current sent through a solution of borates produced a brown precipitate on one of the electrodes.

 

temperatures (51)

 

·         The T phase is produced at similar pressures, but higher temperatures of 1800–2200 °C.

 

·         Pure boron can be prepared by reducing volatile boron halides with hydrogen at high temperatures.

 

·         Ultrapure boron, for the use in semiconductor industry, is produced by the decomposition of diborane at high temperatures and then further purified with the zone melting or Czochralski processes.

 

borates (51)

 

·         Boron compounds were relatively rarely used chemicals until the late 1800s when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company first popularized these compounds and made them in volume and hence cheap Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy and by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thйnard In 1808 Davy observed that electric current sent through a solution of borates produced a brown precipitate on one of the electrodes.

 

·         Several industrial-scale enrichment processes have been developed, however only the fractionated vacuum distillation of the dimethyl ether adduct of boron trifluoride (DME-BF3) and column chromatography of borates are being used.

 

carbon (38)

 

·         Industrially, very pure isolated boron is produced with difficulty, as boron tends to form refractory materials containing small amounts of carbon or other elements.

 

·         Boron carbide Boron carbide is a ceramic material which is obtained by decomposing B2O3 with carbon in the electric furnace: Boron carbide's stucture is only approximately B4C, and it shows a clear depletion of carbon from this suggested stoichiometric ratio.

 

chemicals (35)

 

·         Boron compounds were relatively rarely used chemicals until the late 1800s when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company first popularized these compounds and made them in volume and hence cheap Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy and by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thйnard In 1808 Davy observed that electric current sent through a solution of borates produced a brown precipitate on one of the electrodes.

 

minerals (29)

 

·         However, boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals.

 

boric acid (26)

 

·         In 1777, boric acid was recognized in the hot springs (soffioni) near Florence, Italy, and became known as sal sedativum, with mainly medical uses.

 

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