Carbon: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

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Wikipedia article:  Carbon

 

Carbon

 

Carbon (100)

 

·         Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity.

 

·         There are several allotropes of carbon of which the best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon.

 

·         All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form.

 

·         The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and other transition metal carbonyl complexes.

 

·         The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil and methane clathrates.

·         The different forms or allotropes of carbon (see below) include the hardest naturally occurring substance, diamond, and also one of the softest known substances, graphite.

 

·         Moreover, it has an affinity for bonding with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, and is capable of forming multiple stable covalent bonds with such atoms.

 

·         Carbon sublimes in a carbon arc which has a temperature of about 5,800 K (5,530 °C; 9,980 °F).

 

·         Thus, irrespective of its allotropic form, carbon remains solid at higher temperatures than the highest melting point metals such as tungsten or rhenium.

 

·         This exothermic reaction is used in the iron and steel industry to control the carbon content of steel: with sulfur to form carbon disulfide and with steam in the coal-gas reaction: Carbon combines with some metals at high temperatures to form metallic carbides, such as the iron carbide cementite in steel, and tungsten carbide, widely used as an abrasive and for making hard tips for cutting tools.

 

·         Once considered exotic, fullerenes are nowadays commonly synthesized and used in research; they include buckyballs, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanobuds and nanofibers.

 

·         The buckyballs are fairly large molecules formed completely of carbon bonded trigonally, forming spheroids (the best-known and simplest is the soccerball-shaped C60 buckminsterfullerene).

 

·         As for individual carbon allotropes, graphite is found in large quantities in the United States (mostly in New York and Texas), Russia, Mexico, Greenland, and India.

 

·         Identification of carbon in NMR experiments is done with the isotope C. Carbon-14 (C) is a naturally occurring radioisotope which occurs in trace amounts on Earth of up to 1 part per trillion (0.0000000001%), mostly confined to the atmosphere and superficial deposits, particularly of peat and other organic materials.

 

·         In order to be available for formation of life as we know it, this carbon must then later be scattered into space as dust, in supernova explosions, as part of the material which later forms second, third-generation star systems which have planets accreted from such dust.

 

·         Dissolved in water, it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), but as most compounds with multiple single-bonded oxygens on a single carbon it is unstable.

 

·         In these examples, the harmful effects may result from contamination of the carbon particles, with organic chemicals or heavy metals for example, rather than from the carbon itself.

 

diamonds (100)

 

·         Contrary to the popular belief that "diamonds are forever", they are in fact thermodynamically unstable under normal conditions and transform into graphite.

 

·         Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and Industrial diamonds are used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and stone.

 

graphite (65)

 

·         There are several allotropes of carbon of which the best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon.

 

·         Diamond is among the hardest materials known, while graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek word "to write").

 

·         Diamond has a very low electrical conductivity, while graphite is a very good conductor.

 

·         All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form.

 

·         The different forms or allotropes of carbon (see below) include the hardest naturally occurring substance, diamond, and also one of the softest known substances, graphite.

 

·         Because of the delocalization of one of the outer electrons of each atom to form a π-cloud, graphite conducts electricity, but only in the plane of each covalently bonded sheet.

 

·         Contrary to the popular belief that "diamonds are forever", they are in fact thermodynamically unstable under normal conditions and transform into graphite.

 

·         As for individual carbon allotropes, graphite is found in large quantities in the United States (mostly in New York and Texas), Russia, Mexico, Greenland, and India.

 

materials (22)

 

·         Diamond is among the hardest materials known, while graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek word "to write").

 

·         Identification of carbon in NMR experiments is done with the isotope C. Carbon-14 (C) is a naturally occurring radioisotope which occurs in trace amounts on Earth of up to 1 part per trillion (0.0000000001%), mostly confined to the atmosphere and superficial deposits, particularly of peat and other organic materials.

 

allotropes (19)

 

·         There are several allotropes of carbon of which the best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon.

 

·         All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form.

 

·         The different forms or allotropes of carbon (see below) include the hardest naturally occurring substance, diamond, and also one of the softest known substances, graphite.

 

·         As for individual carbon allotropes, graphite is found in large quantities in the United States (mostly in New York and Texas), Russia, Mexico, Greenland, and India.

 

chemicals (16)

 

·         In these examples, the harmful effects may result from contamination of the carbon particles, with organic chemicals or heavy metals for example, rather than from the carbon itself.

 

bonds (14)

 

·         As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds.

 

·         Moreover, it has an affinity for bonding with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, and is capable of forming multiple stable covalent bonds with such atoms.

 

compounds (11)

 

·         The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and other transition metal carbonyl complexes.

 

·         Dissolved in water, it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), but as most compounds with multiple single-bonded oxygens on a single carbon it is unstable.

 

isotopes (11)

 

·         There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with C and C being stable, while C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years.

 

atoms (6)

 

·         Moreover, it has an affinity for bonding with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, and is capable of forming multiple stable covalent bonds with such atoms.

 

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