Dictionary: Wikipedia summary by WikiSummarizer

This mind map presents a summary of the Wikipedia article referencing the "Dictionary" keyword. The MindManager map was automatically created by WikiSummarizer.

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based application that summarizes Web pages and documents and creates knowledge libraries automatically.

Here is a link to the "Dictionary" MindManager mind map for navigation in your browser.

Here are the 10 keywords and summaries in the Wikipedia article referencing the "Dictionary" keyword.

 

Wikipedia article:  Dictionary

 

Dictionary

 

Dictionary (100)

 

·         A dictionary, also called a lexicon, wordbook, or vocabulary, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically, with usage information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information; or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon.

 

·         The first purely English alphabetical dictionary was A Table Alphabeticall, written by English schoolteacher Robert Cawdrey in 1604.

 

·         Johnson's Dictionary remained the English-language standard for over 150 years, until the Oxford University Press began writing and releasing the Oxford English Dictionary in short fascicles from 1884 onwards.

 

·         In 1807 Webster began compiling an expanded and fully comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language; it took twenty-seven years to complete.

 

 

Wikipedia article:  Dictionary

 

Dictionary

 

Dictionary (100)

 

·         A dictionary, also called a lexicon, wordbook, or vocabulary, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically, with usage information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information; or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon.

 

·         According to the Nihon Shoki, the first Japanese dictionary was the long-lost 682 CE Niina glossary of Chinese characters.

 

·         The Qamus al-Muhit is the first handy dictionary in Arabic, which includes only words and their definitions, eliminating the supporting examples used in such dictionaries as the Lisan and the Oxford English Dictionary.

 

·         The first purely English alphabetical dictionary was A Table Alphabeticall, written by English schoolteacher Robert Cawdrey in 1604.

 

·         Johnson's Dictionary remained the English-language standard for over 150 years, until the Oxford University Press began writing and releasing the Oxford English Dictionary in short fascicles from 1884 onwards.

 

·         In 1807 Webster began compiling an expanded and fully comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language; it took twenty-seven years to complete.

 

·         As a spelling reformer, Webster believed that English spelling rules were unnecessarily complex, so his dictionary introduced American English spellings, replacing "colour" with "color", substituting "wagon" for "waggon", and printing "center" instead of "centre".

 

·         In a general dictionary, each word may have multiple meanings.

 

·         The Bilingual LSP Dictionary: Principles and Practice for Legal Language.

 

dictionaries (100)

 

·         Specialized dictionaries do not contain information about words that are used in language for general purposes—words used by ordinary people in everyday situations.

 

·         There are other types of dictionaries that don't fit neatly in the above distinction, for instance bilingual (translation) dictionaries, dictionaries of synonyms (thesauri), or rhyming dictionaries.

 

·         A different dimension on which dictionaries (usually just general-purpose ones) are sometimes distinguished is whether they are prescriptive or descriptive, the latter being in theory largely based on linguistic corpus studies—this is the case of most modern dictionaries.

 

·         Although the first recorded dictionaries date back to Sumerian times (these were bilingual dictionaries), the systematic study of dictionaries as objects of scientific interest themselves is a 20th century enterprise, called lexicography, and largely initiated by Ladislav Zgusta.

 

·         The oldest known dictionaries were Akkadian empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla (modern Syria) and dated roughly 2300 BCE.

 

·         The Qamus al-Muhit is the first handy dictionary in Arabic, which includes only words and their definitions, eliminating the supporting examples used in such dictionaries as the Lisan and the Oxford English Dictionary.

 

·         Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield was still lamenting in 1754, 150 years after Cawdrey's publication, that it is "a sort of disgrace to our nation, that hitherto we have had no… standard of our language; our dictionaries at present being more properly what our neighbors the Dutch and the Germans call theirs, word-books, than dictionaries in the superior sense of that title."

 

·         He also added American words, like "skunk" and "squash", that did not appear in British dictionaries.

 

·         Some dictionaries include each separate meaning in the order of most common usage while others list definitions in historical order, with the oldest usage first.

 

·         There are also many online dictionaries accessible via the Internet.

 

·         Dictionaries for languages for which the pronunciation of words is not apparent from their spelling, such as the English language, usually provide the pronunciation, often using the International Phonetic Alphabet.

 

English (26)

 

·         The Qamus al-Muhit is the first handy dictionary in Arabic, which includes only words and their definitions, eliminating the supporting examples used in such dictionaries as the Lisan and the Oxford English Dictionary.

 

·         The earliest in the English language were glossaries of French, Italian or Latin words along with definitions of the foreign words in English.

 

·         The first purely English alphabetical dictionary was A Table Alphabeticall, written by English schoolteacher Robert Cawdrey in 1604.

 

·         Johnson's Dictionary remained the English-language standard for over 150 years, until the Oxford University Press began writing and releasing the Oxford English Dictionary in short fascicles from 1884 onwards.

 

·         In 1807 Webster began compiling an expanded and fully comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language; it took twenty-seven years to complete.

 

·         As a spelling reformer, Webster believed that English spelling rules were unnecessarily complex, so his dictionary introduced American English spellings, replacing "colour" with "color", substituting "wagon" for "waggon", and printing "center" instead of "centre".

 

·         Dictionaries for languages for which the pronunciation of words is not apparent from their spelling, such as the English language, usually provide the pronunciation, often using the International Phonetic Alphabet.

 

language (24)

 

·         A dictionary, also called a lexicon, wordbook, or vocabulary, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically, with usage information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information; or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon.

 

·         Specialized dictionaries do not contain information about words that are used in language for general purposes—words used by ordinary people in everyday situations.

 

·         The earliest in the English language were glossaries of French, Italian or Latin words along with definitions of the foreign words in English.

 

·         Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield was still lamenting in 1754, 150 years after Cawdrey's publication, that it is "a sort of disgrace to our nation, that hitherto we have had no… standard of our language; our dictionaries at present being more properly what our neighbors the Dutch and the Germans call theirs, word-books, than dictionaries in the superior sense of that title."

 

·         Johnson's Dictionary remained the English-language standard for over 150 years, until the Oxford University Press began writing and releasing the Oxford English Dictionary in short fascicles from 1884 onwards.

 

·         In 1807 Webster began compiling an expanded and fully comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language; it took twenty-seven years to complete.

 

·         Dictionaries for languages for which the pronunciation of words is not apparent from their spelling, such as the English language, usually provide the pronunciation, often using the International Phonetic Alphabet.

 

·         While descriptivists argue that prescriptivism is an unnatural attempt to dictate usage or curtail change, prescriptivists argue that to indiscriminately document "improper" or "inferior" usages sanctions those usages by default and causes language to deteriorate.

 

·         The Bilingual LSP Dictionary: Principles and Practice for Legal Language.

 

American (18)

 

·         In 1807 Webster began compiling an expanded and fully comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language; it took twenty-seven years to complete.

 

·         As a spelling reformer, Webster believed that English spelling rules were unnecessarily complex, so his dictionary introduced American English spellings, replacing "colour" with "color", substituting "wagon" for "waggon", and printing "center" instead of "centre".

 

·         He also added American words, like "skunk" and "squash", that did not appear in British dictionaries.

 

·         Austin (2005) explores the intersection of lexicographical and poetic practices in American literature, and attempts to map out a "lexical poetics" using Webster's definitions as his base.

 

lexicography (16)

 

·         Although the first recorded dictionaries date back to Sumerian times (these were bilingual dictionaries), the systematic study of dictionaries as objects of scientific interest themselves is a 20th century enterprise, called lexicography, and largely initiated by Ladislav Zgusta.

 

modern (9)

 

·         A different dimension on which dictionaries (usually just general-purpose ones) are sometimes distinguished is whether they are prescriptive or descriptive, the latter being in theory largely based on linguistic corpus studies—this is the case of most modern dictionaries.

 

·         The oldest known dictionaries were Akkadian empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla (modern Syria) and dated roughly 2300 BCE.

 

specialized dictionaries (8)

 

·         Specialized dictionaries do not contain information about words that are used in language for general purposes—words used by ordinary people in everyday situations.

 

usage (8)

 

·         A dictionary, also called a lexicon, wordbook, or vocabulary, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically, with usage information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information; or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon.

 

·         Some dictionaries include each separate meaning in the order of most common usage while others list definitions in historical order, with the oldest usage first.

 

·         While descriptivists argue that prescriptivism is an unnatural attempt to dictate usage or curtail change, prescriptivists argue that to indiscriminately document "improper" or "inferior" usages sanctions those usages by default and causes language to deteriorate.

 

Alphabeticall (7)

 

·         The first purely English alphabetical dictionary was A Table Alphabeticall, written by English schoolteacher Robert Cawdrey in 1604.

————————————————————————–

·         This summary was produced by WikiSummarizer for Wikipedia

 

·         WikiSummarizer is an automated text summarization and text mining application created by Context Discovery Inc

 

·         If you are interested in using WikiSummarizer technology please contact us at wikisummarizer@contextdiscovery.com

————————————————————————

About Context Discovery WikiSummarizer

WikiSummarizer is a Web-based summarization engine that summarizes Web pages and documents in English, French, Spanish, and German. The summarization results are stored in any relational database. Report writers, including web-based ones, can be easily used for knowledge mining of the summaries, keywords and links. The search function works as a back-of-the-book index pointing to the most relevant summaries and links.

The keywords, summaries, and links are easily exported via XML to other applications such as Mindjet MindManager, Microsoft Word, etc. to generate instant mind maps and reports.

For more information about installing the WikiSummarizer for your organization or as a cloud server please contact info@contextdiscovery.com

 

About Henry

Hi, I’m Henry Lewkowicz and I’m the CEO of Context Discovery Inc. For long time I have been interested in the importance of context in understanding information. Intuitively we recognize the meaning of context when we say “you took my words out of context”. This phrase vividly signifies how much we care about our intentions and point of view. I believe that in the Internet age context plays a big role in rapid understanding of information. I’ll go on the record and say that in fact seeing information in context dramatically speeds understanding and simplifies application of information. In this blog I hope to have a lively dialog with you on a range of subjects related to context, information overload, knowledge, learning and other fun topics. In the course of doing it I will be using our own application, Context Organizer, as an experiment in capturing in 1 sentence what bloggers and other writers publish. I hope that we all will have some fun with it and learn more about communicating. Although this is primarily a technology and business blog, to great degree it's also my personal blog. From time to time, amongst the customary posts, I will write about issues that I passionately care about, my travels, and photos that I've taken. Periodically I refer to my family or friends, and sometimes you even see my vacation photos. I hope to make lots of new friends and learn a great deal in the process. Life is too short…. Enjoy, and feel free to write to me.
This entry was posted in WikiSummarizer and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.