Helium: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

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Here are the 10 most important keywords and summaries in the Wikipedia article describing "Helium"

 

Wikipedia article:  Helium

 

Helium

 

Helium (100)

 

·         Helium is the second lightest element and is the second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined.

 

·         This is due to the very high binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium.

 

·         In 1903, large reserves of helium were found in natural gas fields in parts of the United States, which is by far the largest supplier of the gas today.

 

·         Helium is used in cryogenics (its largest single use, absorbing about a quarter of production), particularly in the cooling of superconducting magnets, with the main commercial application being in MRI scanners.

 

·         Helium's other industrial uses- as a pressurizing and purge gas, as a protective atmosphere for arc welding and in processes such as growing crystals to make silicon wafers- account for half of the gas produced.

 

·         Most terrestrial helium present today is created by the natural radioactive decay of heavy radioactive elements (thorium and uranium), as the alpha particles emitted by such decays consist of helium-4 nuclei.

 

·         He tried to solidify it by further reducing the temperature but failed because helium does not have a triple point temperature at which the solid, liquid, and gas phases are at equilibrium.

 

·         In 1938, Russian physicist Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa discovered that helium-4 has almost no viscosity at temperatures near absolute zero, a phenomenon now called superfluidity.

 

·         A total of 5,700 m (200,000 cubic feet) of 92% helium was produced in the program even though less than a cubic meter of the gas had previously been obtained.

 

·         Helium use following World War II was depressed but the reserve was expanded in the 1950s to ensure a supply of liquid helium as a coolant to create oxygen/hydrogen rocket fuel (among other uses) during the Space Race and Cold War.

 

·         Helium in quantum mechanics In the perspective of quantum mechanics, helium is the second simplest atom to model, following the hydrogen atom.

 

·         This arrangement is thus energetically extremely stable for all these particles, and this stability accounts for many crucial facts regarding helium in nature.

 

·         For example, the stability and low energy of the electron cloud state in helium accounts for the element's chemical inertness, and also the lack of interaction of helium atoms with each other, producing the lowest melting and boiling points of all the elements.

 

·         Helium-4 nuclear binding per nucleon is stronger than in any of these elements (see nucleogenesis and binding energy) and thus no energetic drive was available, once helium had been formed, to make elements 3, 4 and 5.

 

·         Helium is the least reactive noble gas after neon and thus the second least reactive of all elements; it is inert and monatomic in all standard conditions.

 

·         In the fountain effect, a chamber is constructed which is connected to a reservoir of helium II by a sintered disc through which superfluid helium leaks easily but through which non-superfluid helium cannot pass.

 

·         Helium-3 is present on Earth only in trace amounts; most of it since Earth's formation, though some falls to Earth trapped in cosmic dust.

 

·         Since helium has a lower boiling point than any other element, low temperature and high pressure are used to liquefy nearly all the other gases (mostly nitrogen and methane).

 

gas (100)

 

·         It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas that heads the noble gas group in the periodic table.

 

·         In 1903, large reserves of helium were found in natural gas fields in parts of the United States, which is by far the largest supplier of the gas today.

 

·         Helium's other industrial uses- as a pressurizing and purge gas, as a protective atmosphere for arc welding and in processes such as growing crystals to make silicon wafers- account for half of the gas produced.

 

·         He tried to solidify it by further reducing the temperature but failed because helium does not have a triple point temperature at which the solid, liquid, and gas phases are at equilibrium.

 

·         A total of 5,700 m (200,000 cubic feet) of 92% helium was produced in the program even though less than a cubic meter of the gas had previously been obtained.

 

·         Helium is the least reactive noble gas after neon and thus the second least reactive of all elements; it is inert and monatomic in all standard conditions.

 

helium-4 (40)

 

·         This is due to the very high binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium.

 

·         Most terrestrial helium present today is created by the natural radioactive decay of heavy radioactive elements (thorium and uranium), as the alpha particles emitted by such decays consist of helium-4 nuclei.

 

·         In 1938, Russian physicist Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa discovered that helium-4 has almost no viscosity at temperatures near absolute zero, a phenomenon now called superfluidity.

 

·         Helium-4 nuclear binding per nucleon is stronger than in any of these elements (see nucleogenesis and binding energy) and thus no energetic drive was available, once helium had been formed, to make elements 3, 4 and 5.

 

energy (14)

 

·         This is due to the very high binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium.

 

·         For example, the stability and low energy of the electron cloud state in helium accounts for the element's chemical inertness, and also the lack of interaction of helium atoms with each other, producing the lowest melting and boiling points of all the elements.

 

·         Helium-4 nuclear binding per nucleon is stronger than in any of these elements (see nucleogenesis and binding energy) and thus no energetic drive was available, once helium had been formed, to make elements 3, 4 and 5.

 

binding (11)

 

·         This is due to the very high binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium.

 

·         Helium-4 nuclear binding per nucleon is stronger than in any of these elements (see nucleogenesis and binding energy) and thus no energetic drive was available, once helium had been formed, to make elements 3, 4 and 5.

 

mass (11)

 

·         Helium is the second lightest element and is the second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined.

 

boiling (11)

 

·         For example, the stability and low energy of the electron cloud state in helium accounts for the element's chemical inertness, and also the lack of interaction of helium atoms with each other, producing the lowest melting and boiling points of all the elements.

 

·         Since helium has a lower boiling point than any other element, low temperature and high pressure are used to liquefy nearly all the other gases (mostly nitrogen and methane).

 

Sun (9)

 

·         Its abundance is similar to this figure in our own Sun and in Jupiter.

 

universe (9)

 

·         Helium is the second lightest element and is the second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined.

 

temperature (9)

 

·         He tried to solidify it by further reducing the temperature but failed because helium does not have a triple point temperature at which the solid, liquid, and gas phases are at equilibrium.

 

·         Since helium has a lower boiling point than any other element, low temperature and high pressure are used to liquefy nearly all the other gases (mostly nitrogen and methane).

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