Hydrogen: Wikipedia summary by WikiSummarizer

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Here are the 10 most important keywords and summaries in the Wikipedia article describing "Hydrogen"

 

Wikipedia article:  Hydrogen

 

Hydrogen

 

Hydrogen (100)

 

·         It is represented by the symbol H. With an average atomic weight of 1.00794 u (1.007825 u for Hydrogen-1), hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's chemical elemental mass.

 

·         Stars in the main sequence are mainly composed of hydrogen in its plasma state.

 

·         Naturally occurring elemental hydrogen is relatively rare on Earth.

 

·         The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium (name rarely used, symbol H) with a single proton and no neutrons.

 

·         In ionic compounds it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H), or as a positively charged species H. The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species.

 

·         Hydrogen forms compounds with most elements and is present in water and most organic compounds.

 

·         For example, as the only neutral atom with an analytic solution to the Schrцdinger equation, the study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics.

 

·         Hydrogen gas (now known to be H2) was first artificially produced in the early 16th century, via the mixing of metals with strong acids.

 

·         At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, nonmetallic, tasteless, non-toxic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2.

 

·         Industrial production is mainly from the steam reforming of natural gas, and less often from more energy-intensive hydrogen production methods like the electrolysis of water.

 

·         A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrцdinger equation or the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton.

 

·         Hydrogen also forms compounds with less electronegative elements, such as the metals and metalloids, in which it takes on a partial negative charge.

 

·         However, even in this case, such solvated hydrogen cations are thought more realistically physically to be organized into clusters that form species closer to H9O+ 4.

 

·         In 1671, Robert Boyle discovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids, which results in the production of hydrogen gas.

 

·         Lavoisier produced hydrogen for his famous experiments on mass conservation by reacting a flux of steam with metallic iron through an incandescent iron tube heated in a fire.

 

·         These widely spaced levels inhibit equal partition of heat energy into rotational motion in hydrogen at low temperatures.

 

·         Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, making up 75% of normal matter by mass and over 90% by number of atoms (most of the mass of the universe, however, is not in the form of chemical-element type matter, but rather is postulated to occur as yet-undetected forms of mass such as dark matter and dark energy).

 

water (100)

 

·         Hydrogen forms compounds with most elements and is present in water and most organic compounds.

 

·         Industrial production is mainly from the steam reforming of natural gas, and less often from more energy-intensive hydrogen production methods like the electrolysis of water.

 

proton (96)

 

·         The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium (name rarely used, symbol H) with a single proton and no neutrons.

 

·         In ionic compounds it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H), or as a positively charged species H. The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species.

 

·         A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrцdinger equation or the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton.

 

·         A bare proton, H, cannot exist in solution or in ionic crystals, because of its unstoppable attraction to other atoms or molecules with electrons.

 

·         Because the nucleus of this isotope consists of only a single proton, it is given the descriptive but rarely used formal name protium.

 

compounds (74)

 

·         In ionic compounds it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H), or as a positively charged species H. The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species.

 

·         Hydrogen forms compounds with most elements and is present in water and most organic compounds.

 

·         Hydrogen also forms compounds with less electronegative elements, such as the metals and metalloids, in which it takes on a partial negative charge.

 

hydrides (54)

 

·         In inorganic chemistry, hydrides can also serve as bridging ligands that link two metal centers in a coordination complex.

 

·         This function is particularly common in group 13 elements, especially in boranes (boron hydrides) and aluminium complexes, as well as in clustered carboranes.

 

gas (33)

 

·         Hydrogen gas (now known to be H2) was first artificially produced in the early 16th century, via the mixing of metals with strong acids.

 

·         At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, nonmetallic, tasteless, non-toxic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2.

 

·         Industrial production is mainly from the steam reforming of natural gas, and less often from more energy-intensive hydrogen production methods like the electrolysis of water.

 

·         In 1671, Robert Boyle discovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids, which results in the production of hydrogen gas.

 

isotope (32)

 

·         The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium (name rarely used, symbol H) with a single proton and no neutrons.

 

·         Because the nucleus of this isotope consists of only a single proton, it is given the descriptive but rarely used formal name protium.

 

·         It is used in nuclear fusion reactions, as a tracer in isotope geochemistry, and specialized in self-powered lighting devices.

 

Hydrogen-1 (29)

 

·         It is represented by the symbol H. With an average atomic weight of 1.00794 u (1.007825 u for Hydrogen-1), hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's chemical elemental mass.

 

reaction (23)

 

·         In 1671, Robert Boyle discovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids, which results in the production of hydrogen gas.

 

species (22)

 

·         In ionic compounds it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H), or as a positively charged species H. The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species.

 

·         However, even in this case, such solvated hydrogen cations are thought more realistically physically to be organized into clusters that form species closer to H9O+ 4.

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