Linguistics: Wikipedia summary by WikiSummarizer

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Here are the 10 keywords and summaries in the Wikipedia article referencing the "Linguistics" keyword.

 

Wikipedia article:  Linguistics

 

Linguistics

 

Linguistics (100)

 

·         Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context.

 

·         Phonetics is a related branch of linguistics concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds and nonspeech sounds, and how they are produced and perceived.

 

·         Language in its broader context includes evolutionary linguistics, which considers the origins of language; historical linguistics, which explores language change; sociolinguistics, which looks at the relation between linguistic variation and social structures; psycholinguistics, which explores the representation and function of language in the mind; neurolinguistics, which looks at language processing in the brain; language acquisition, how children or adults acquire language; and discourse analysis, which involves the structure of texts and conversations.

 

Wikipedia article:  Linguistics

 

Linguistics

 

Linguistics (100)

 

·         Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context.

 

·         Phonetics is a related branch of linguistics concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds and nonspeech sounds, and how they are produced and perceived.

 

·         Language in its broader context includes evolutionary linguistics, which considers the origins of language; historical linguistics, which explores language change; sociolinguistics, which looks at the relation between linguistic variation and social structures; psycholinguistics, which explores the representation and function of language in the mind; neurolinguistics, which looks at language processing in the brain; language acquisition, how children or adults acquire language; and discourse analysis, which involves the structure of texts and conversations.

 

·         Although linguistics is the scientific study of language, a number of other intellectual disciplines are relevant to language and intersect with it.

 

·         These fields are distinguished by the kinds of nonlinguistic factors that they consider: Applied linguistics, the study of language-related issues applied in everyday life, notable ones being language policies, planning, and education.

 

·         Historical linguistics or diachronic linguistics, the study of language change over time.

 

·         Historical linguistics was among the first linguistic disciplines to emerge and was the most widely practiced form of linguistics in the late 19th century.

 

·         Starting with Franz Boas in the early 1900s, descriptive linguistics became the main strand within American linguistics until the rise of formal structural linguistics in the mid-20th century.

 

·         The ethnographic focus of the original Boasian type of descriptive linguistics occasioned the development of disciplines such as Sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics, and linguistic anthropology, disciplines that investigate the relations between language, culture, and society.

 

·         Functionalist linguists working in functional grammar, and Cognitive Linguistics tend to stress the non-autonomy of linguistic knowledge and the non-universality of linguistic structures, thus differing significantly from the formal approaches.

 

language (100)

 

·         Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context.

 

·         The first is the study of language structure, or grammar.

 

·         The study of language meaning is concerned with how languages employ logical structures and real-world references to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as to manage and resolve ambiguity.

 

·         Language in its broader context includes evolutionary linguistics, which considers the origins of language; historical linguistics, which explores language change; sociolinguistics, which looks at the relation between linguistic variation and social structures; psycholinguistics, which explores the representation and function of language in the mind; neurolinguistics, which looks at language processing in the brain; language acquisition, how children or adults acquire language; and discourse analysis, which involves the structure of texts and conversations.

 

·         Although linguistics is the scientific study of language, a number of other intellectual disciplines are relevant to language and intersect with it.

 

·         Linguists assume that the ability to acquire and use language is an innate, biologically based potential of modern human beings, similar to the ability to walk, because nonhumans do not acquire human language in this way (although many nonhuman animals can learn to respond to language, or can even be trained to use it to a degree).

 

·         These fields are distinguished by the kinds of nonlinguistic factors that they consider: Applied linguistics, the study of language-related issues applied in everyday life, notable ones being language policies, planning, and education.

 

·         Biolinguistics, the study of natural as well as human-taught communication systems in animals, compared to human language.

 

·         Historical linguistics or diachronic linguistics, the study of language change over time.

 

·         Typologists and non-generativist linguists usually refer simply to language universals, or universals of language.

 

·         In addition to making substantial use of discrete categories, language has the important property that it organizes elements into recursive structures; this allows, for example, a noun phrase to contain another noun phrase (as in "the chimpanzee's lips") or a clause to contain a clause (as in "I think that it's raining").

 

·         The ethnographic focus of the original Boasian type of descriptive linguistics occasioned the development of disciplines such as Sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics, and linguistic anthropology, disciplines that investigate the relations between language, culture, and society.

 

·         Most contemporary linguists work under the assumption that spoken (or signed) language is more fundamental than written language.

 

grammar (20)

 

·         The first is the study of language structure, or grammar.

 

·         Functionalist linguists working in functional grammar, and Cognitive Linguistics tend to stress the non-autonomy of linguistic knowledge and the non-universality of linguistic structures, thus differing significantly from the formal approaches.

 

meaning (10)

 

·         Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context.

 

·         The study of language meaning is concerned with how languages employ logical structures and real-world references to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as to manage and resolve ambiguity.

 

·         This subfield encompasses semantics (how meaning is inferred from words and concepts) and pragmatics (how meaning is inferred from context).

 

·         For instance, the meaning "cat" is represented worldwide with a wide variety of different sound patterns (in spoken languages), movements of the hands and face (in signed languages), and written symbols (in written languages).

 

speech (9)

 

·         Phonetics is a related branch of linguistics concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds and nonspeech sounds, and how they are produced and perceived.

 

speakers (6)

 

·         Nevertheless, recent research suggests that even weak genetic biases in speakers may, over a number of generations, influence the evolution of particular languages, leading to a nonrandom distribution of certain linguistic features across the world.

 

semantics (5)

 

·         This subfield encompasses semantics (how meaning is inferred from words and concepts) and pragmatics (how meaning is inferred from context).

 

sound (4)

 

·         It encompasses morphology (the formation and composition of words), syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences from these words), and phonology (sound systems).

 

·         For instance, the meaning "cat" is represented worldwide with a wide variety of different sound patterns (in spoken languages), movements of the hands and face (in signed languages), and written symbols (in written languages).

 

linguists (4)

 

·         Linguists assume that the ability to acquire and use language is an innate, biologically based potential of modern human beings, similar to the ability to walk, because nonhumans do not acquire human language in this way (although many nonhuman animals can learn to respond to language, or can even be trained to use it to a degree).

 

·         Typologists and non-generativist linguists usually refer simply to language universals, or universals of language.

 

·         Most contemporary linguists work under the assumption that spoken (or signed) language is more fundamental than written language.

 

·         Functionalist linguists working in functional grammar, and Cognitive Linguistics tend to stress the non-autonomy of linguistic knowledge and the non-universality of linguistic structures, thus differing significantly from the formal approaches.

 

phonology (3)

 

·         It encompasses morphology (the formation and composition of words), syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences from these words), and phonology (sound systems).

 

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