Lithium: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

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Wikipedia article:  Lithium

 

Lithium

 

Lithium (100)

 

·         Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable.

 

·         When cut open, lithium exhibits a metallic luster, but contact with moist air corrodes the surface quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black, tarnish.

 

·         Because of its high reactivity, lithium never occurs free in nature, and instead, only appears in compounds, which are usually ionic.

 

·         Lithium occurs in a number of pegmatitic minerals, but due to its solubility as an ion is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines and clays.

 

·         Because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though the nuclei are very light in atomic weight.

 

·         Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, lithium batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

 

·         The lithium ion Li administered as any of several lithium salts has proved to be useful as a mood-stabilizing drug due to neurological effects of the ion in the human body.

 

·         Like the other alkali metals, lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation.

 

·         Lithium is superconductive below 400 μK at standard pressure and at higher temperatures (more than 9 K) at very high pressures (>20 GPa) At temperatures below 70 K, lithium, like sodium, undergoes diffusionless phase change transformations.

 

·         The reaction forms hydrogen gas and lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution.

 

·         Though the heavier alkali metals can be stored in less dense substances, such as mineral oil, lithium is not dense enough to be fully submerged in these liquids.

 

·         There are a fairly large number of both lithium mineral and brine deposits but only comparatively a few of them are of actual or potential commercial value.

 

·         It was not isolated until 1821, when William Thomas Brande obtained it by electrolysis of lithium oxide, a process that had previously been employed by the chemist Sir Humphry Davy to isolate the alkali metals potassium and sodium.

 

·         In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen.

 

·         The discovery of this procedure henceforth led to commercial production of lithium, beginning in 1923, by the German company Metallgesellschaft AG, which performed an electrolysis of a liquid mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

 

·         There are widespread hopes of using lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles, but one study concluded that "realistically achievable lithium carbonate production will be sufficient for only a small fraction of future PHEV and EV global market requirements", that "demand from the portable electronics sector will absorb much of the planned production increases in the next decade", and that "mass production of lithium carbonate is not environmentally sound, it will cause irreparable ecological damage to ecosystems that should be protected and that LiIon propulsion is incompatible with the notion of the 'Green Car'".

 

·         For example: [edit] Optics Lithium fluoride, artificially grown as crystal, is clear and transparent and often used in specialist optics for IR, UV and VUV (vacuum UV) applications.

 

alkali metals (100)

 

·         Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable.

 

·         Like the other alkali metals, lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation.

 

·         Though the heavier alkali metals can be stored in less dense substances, such as mineral oil, lithium is not dense enough to be fully submerged in these liquids.

 

·         It was not isolated until 1821, when William Thomas Brande obtained it by electrolysis of lithium oxide, a process that had previously been employed by the chemist Sir Humphry Davy to isolate the alkali metals potassium and sodium.

 

compounds (58)

 

·         Because of its high reactivity, lithium never occurs free in nature, and instead, only appears in compounds, which are usually ionic.

 

·         Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, lithium batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

 

minerals (41)

 

·         Lithium occurs in a number of pegmatitic minerals, but due to its solubility as an ion is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines and clays.

 

water (35)

 

·         Lithium occurs in a number of pegmatitic minerals, but due to its solubility as an ion is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines and clays.

 

brine (29)

 

·         There are a fairly large number of both lithium mineral and brine deposits but only comparatively a few of them are of actual or potential commercial value.

 

ion (29)

 

·         Lithium occurs in a number of pegmatitic minerals, but due to its solubility as an ion is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines and clays.

 

·         Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, lithium batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

 

·         The lithium ion Li administered as any of several lithium salts has proved to be useful as a mood-stabilizing drug due to neurological effects of the ion in the human body.

 

·         There are widespread hopes of using lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles, but one study concluded that "realistically achievable lithium carbonate production will be sufficient for only a small fraction of future PHEV and EV global market requirements", that "demand from the portable electronics sector will absorb much of the planned production increases in the next decade", and that "mass production of lithium carbonate is not environmentally sound, it will cause irreparable ecological damage to ecosystems that should be protected and that LiIon propulsion is incompatible with the notion of the 'Green Car'".

 

dense (22)

 

·         Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element.

 

·         Though the heavier alkali metals can be stored in less dense substances, such as mineral oil, lithium is not dense enough to be fully submerged in these liquids.

 

chemical elements (22)

 

·         Because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though the nuclei are very light in atomic weight.

 

air (19)

 

·         When cut open, lithium exhibits a metallic luster, but contact with moist air corrodes the surface quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black, tarnish.

 

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