Sodium: Wikipedia Visual Summary by WikiSummarizer

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This Visual Summary presents the keywords and the summaries of the Wikipedia article about "Sodium". The Visual Summary map and the Keyword Cloud were automatically created by WikiSummarizer.

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Keyword Cloud with links to Wikipedia Knowledge Base

 

 

Essential Summary

 

Wikipedia article:  Sodium

 

Sodium

 

Sodium (100)

 

·         Many salts of sodium are highly soluble in water and are thus present in significant quantities in the Earth's bodies of water, most abundantly in the oceans as sodium chloride.

 

·         Many sodium compounds are useful, such as sodium hydroxide (lye) for soapmaking, and sodium chloride for use as a deicing agent and a nutrient.

 

·         In animals, sodium ions are used against potassium ions to build up charges on cell membranes, allowing transmission of nerve impulses when the charge is dissipated; it is therefore classified as a dietary inorganic macro-mineral.

 

·         When sodium or its compounds are introduced into a flame, they turn it yellow, because the heat excites sodium atoms and moves their valence electrons from the 3s orbital to the 3p orbital; as those electrons fall back to 3s, they emit a photon with a wavelength corresponding to the D line at 589.3 nm.

 

·         Sodium metal is highly reducing, with the reduction of sodium ions requiring −2.71 volts; other alkali metals have more negative potentials.

 

·         Like all the alkali metals, it reacts exothermically with water, to the point that sufficiently large pieces melt to a sphere and then explode; this reaction produces caustic sodium hydroxide and flammable hydrogen gas.

 

·         The insolubility of certain sodium minerals such as cryolite and feldspar arises from their polymeric anions, which in the case of feldspar is a polysilicate.

 

·         The sodium compounds that are the most important are common salt (NaCl), soda ash (Na2CO3), baking soda (NaHCO3), caustic soda (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), di- and tri-sodium phosphates, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3·5H2O), and borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O).

 

·         Like the other alkali metals, metallic sodium dissolves in ammonia and some other amines to give deeply coloured solutions.

 

·         The name sodium is thought to originate from the Arabic suda, meaning headache, as the headache-alleviating properties of sodium carbonate or soda were well known in early times.

 

·         The chemical abbreviation for sodium was first published by Jцns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols, and is a contraction of the element's new Latin name natrium, which refers to the Egyptian natron, a natural mineral salt primarily made of hydrated sodium carbonate.

 

·         Although sodium, sometimes called soda, had long been recognised in compounds, the metal itself was not isolated until 1807 by Humphry Davy through the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide.

 

·         Metallic sodium was first produced commercially in 1855 by carbothermal reduction of sodium carbonate at 1100 °C, in what is known as the Deville process: A related process based on the reduction of sodium hydroxide was developed in 1886.

 

·         Previous uses were for the making of tetraethyllead and titanium metal; because applications for these chemicals were discontinued, the production of sodium declined after 1970.

 

·         Heat transfer Liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid in some fast reactors, due to its high thermal conductivity and low neutron absorption cross section, which is required to achieve a high neutron flux; the high boiling point allows the reactor to operate at ambient pressure.

 

·         Sodium soaps are harder (higher melting) soaps than potassium soaps.

 

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About Henry

Hi, I’m Henry Lewkowicz and I’m the CEO of Context Discovery Inc. For long time I have been interested in the importance of context in understanding information. Intuitively we recognize the meaning of context when we say “you took my words out of context”. This phrase vividly signifies how much we care about our intentions and point of view. I believe that in the Internet age context plays a big role in rapid understanding of information. I’ll go on the record and say that in fact seeing information in context dramatically speeds understanding and simplifies application of information. In this blog I hope to have a lively dialog with you on a range of subjects related to context, information overload, knowledge, learning and other fun topics. In the course of doing it I will be using our own application, Context Organizer, as an experiment in capturing in 1 sentence what bloggers and other writers publish. I hope that we all will have some fun with it and learn more about communicating. Although this is primarily a technology and business blog, to great degree it's also my personal blog. From time to time, amongst the customary posts, I will write about issues that I passionately care about, my travels, and photos that I've taken. Periodically I refer to my family or friends, and sometimes you even see my vacation photos. I hope to make lots of new friends and learn a great deal in the process. Life is too short…. Enjoy, and feel free to write to me.
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